Tuesday, November 2, 2010
Sunday, October 24, 2010
WH Questions with Present Simple
"Who works at a university?" (Not who does work at a university? This is wrong!!)
Emelworks at a university.
"Who is a teacher at a university?"
Sheis a teacher at a university.
"What is expensive?"
The book is expensive.
"Which book tells an intersting story?"
The expensive book tells an interesting story.
Object questions ask about the object of a sentence. The word order of the question must be changed. Use Who or Whom for people and What for objects.
* John helps Alice.
Who helps Alice? John helps Alice. (subject question)
Who(m) does John help? John helps Alice. (object question)
* John is with Alice.
Who is with Alice? John is with Alice. (subject question)
Who is John with? John is with Alice. (object question)
* The book gives a good example.
What does the book give? The book gives a good example.
Friday, April 23, 2010
Who: used for humans in subject position:
Hans, who is an architect, lives in Berlin.
Marike, whom Hans knows well, is an interior decorator.
Marike has a dog which follows her everywhere.
That: used for humans, animals and things, in subject or object position (but see below): Marike is decorating a house that Hans designed.
The package that arrived this morning is on the desk.
I should have gone to the funeral. (You didn't go and now you regret)
Lex might have taken Karen to the airport. (He may be on the way now)
Lex could have taken Karen to the airport. (Most likely he didn't)
His children must have been sick. (That's why they were not in the class yesterday.)
Monday, April 19, 2010
The past perfect is used to refer to an event or situation which took place before another past event.
Tom had interviewed five times before he got his first job.
She had already eaten by the time they arrived.
Past Perfect Continuous:
The past perfect continuous is used to express how long something had been going on before something important happened in the past.
Jane had been studying for four hours when he came home.
Jack had been driving four over six hours when he finally pulled over to have lunch.
Note: You cannot use non-action verbs in past perfect progressive tense.
Sunday, March 14, 2010
Friday, March 12, 2010
Eg: "I'm going to buy his book. It's suposed to be very good."
" I'm supposed to give a conference in Berlin tomorrow."
" Are you supposed to finish the project today?" Yes I am.
" He is not supposed to be here now"
"You are not supposed to speak Turkish in an English class.
2- Use was /were supposed to when you are expected to do something in the past but could not do it :
Eg: "The exam was supposed to start at 10.00, but the teacher was late."
"They were supposed to call before they go, but they didn't.
Watch a video on Youtube about be supposed to
Eg: "I prefer horror films in general."
“He prefers reading books.”
" They prefer to spend their holiday abroad."
2- The expressions 'would prefer' and 'would rather', to be a little more specific or for on the spot decisions.
3- While making comparison prefer, would prefer – go with 'to'
5- To ask about general likes and dislikes, use "present simple tense".
Eg: Do you prefer horror films?
Wednesday, February 24, 2010
1- Infinitives are the "to" form of the verb.
The infinitive form of "learn" is "to learn." You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.
· To learn is important.
· The most important thing is to learn.
· He wants to learn.
2- Infinitives can be made negative by adding "not."
· I decided not to go.
· The most important thing is not to give up.
3- Some verbs are followed by infinitives
4- Some verbs are followed by a noun +infinitive.
In some situations, the noun is required. In other situations, the noun is optional.
· The police ordered the man to stop. (noun is required)
· She asked to leave. (noun is optional)
· She asked him to leave. (noun is optional)
Reading helps you learn English.
(SUB) (VERB) (OBJECT)
Her favorite hobby is reading.
(SUBJECT) (Verb) (COMPLEMENT)
I enjoy reading.
(S) (V) (O)
The best thing for your health is not smoking.
He prefers not speaking.
3-In the subject position mostly gerunds are used.
Learning is important.
Dancing is enjoyable.
4- Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects.
5- There are many "go + gerund" expressions used for adventure sports and individual recreational activities
6- Gerunds are used after prepositions.
Sandy is scared of flying.
They admitted to committing the crime.
7- Gerunds can often be modified with possessive forms such as his, her, its, your, their, our, John's
I enjoyed their singing.
She understood his saying no to the offer.
Sam resented Debbie's coming late to the dinner.
We discussed Mary’s behaving so rude.
GERUND OR INFINITIVE ?
Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive, but with a difference in meaning.
Sunday, February 21, 2010
1. One syllable adjectives: cheap
Comparative: add --er (cheaper) Superlative: add --est (the cheapest)
2. One syllable adjectives ending in 'e': nice
Comparative: add --r (nicer) Superlative: add --st (the nicest)
3. One syllable adjectives ending in consonant - vowel - consonant: hot
Comparative: add consonant + er (hotter)
Superlative: add consonant + est (the hottest)
4. Two syllable adjectives ending in 'y': happy
Comparative: replace y with --ier (happier) Superlative: replace y with --iest (the happiest)
5. Two or more syllable adjectives: beautiful
Comparative: add more / less (more / less beautiful)
Superlative: add the most / the least (the most / least beautiful)
6. Irregular adjectivesgood - better - the best
bad - worse - the worst
far - further - the furthest
Functions and examples
1. We use comparatives to compare two things.John is thinner than Bob.
It's more expensive to travel by train than by bus.
My house is smaller than my friend's house.
2. We use superlatives to compare one thing with the rest of the group it belongs to.John is the tallest in the class.
He's the best football player in the team.
This is the most expensive hotel I've ever stayed in.
3- We can repeat comparatives to say that something is changing.
These exams are getting worse and worse every year.
She gets more and more beautiful every time I see her.
1- We use as + adjective + as or as + adverb+ as to say that two things are similar in some way.
He's as tall as me. (as+adj+as)
Jim's car is as fast as mine.
He runs as fast as me. (as+adv+as)
She sings as well as her sister.
The little boy speaks English as fluently as his brother.
2- We use not as..as to say that two things are different in some way.He's not as tall as me. I am taller than him.
Jim's car is not as fast as mine. My car is faster.
She does not sing as well as her sister. Her sister sings better.
The little boy cannot speak English as fluently as his brother. His brother speaks English more fluently.