Tuesday, March 27, 2018

Grammar Worm will be in a new home soon!!! 

Thursday, February 22, 2018






Tuesday, March 4, 2014

USED TO / WOULD / PAST SIMPLE (past habits)


- We use used to to talk about past habits (repeated events in the past) that we no longer have. 


I used to work part time when I was a student. 
My parents used to take me to the park every weekend when I was a child.   

He didn't use to smoke in the past, but now he smokes a lot. 

- "Used to" is also used with past states, not with past actions.   

  • We used to live in New York when I was a kid.

  • There didn’t use to be a petrol station there. When was it built?
!!!! Don't use "used to" with single events in the past. Use past simple in that case. 

I visited my grandmother last month. NOT I used to visit my grandmother last month


We use "would" to talk about repeated past actions. 

Every weekend, we would go on a picnic in the summer. 
We wouldn't spend our holidays abroad. 

- "Would" is also used with past actions, not with past states.   

I would live in Vienna when I was a child. (used to)

He would come and help me with my homework.  

!!!! Don't use "would" with single events in the past. Use past simple in that case. 

I visited my grandmother last month. NOT I would visit my grandmother last month

* Wouldn't is not generally used. 


We can use past simple for repeated past events similar to "used to" and "would". 


She used to work in a factory. 
She would work in a factory.
She worked in a factory.  

!!! However, when we give a period of time, we use past simple, not "used to /would"!!!

She worked in a factory for 5 years. She used to work in a factory for 5 years


Thursday, November 22, 2012

REPORTED SPEECH (Direct / Indirect Speech)

We can report people's words by using direct speech or indirect speech. 
Direct Speech: Exact words of the speaker. We use quotation marks (' '). 
Reported (Indirect Speech): Exact meaning of what someone said but not the exact words. We do not use quotation marks. 

While reporting someone's sentences we start the sentences generally with some verbs like "say, tell". 

eg: Tom said that it was nice to be at home. 


Say is used with or without personal object. 

Eg: He said (that) he was Ted. 
      He said to me (that) he was Ted.  

Tell is always used with a personal object. 

Eg: He told me (that) he was Ted. 
      NOT      He told (that) he was Ted. 

We report someone's sentences after some time. Because of this, in reported speech we change personal pronouns, possessive adjectives/pronouns,  verb tense, and time expressions according to the meaning of the sentence. 

Eg: Sam said "I am flying to Italy with my family tomorrow."

Sam said that he was flying to Italy with his family the following day. 

When the reported sentence start with past tense verb like "said, told" etc., the verb tenses change as follows: 

Time expressions change as follows: 

Exercises : 








COMMANDS:In commands and instructions, we generally use "order" or "tell" instead of "say". As these are imperative sentences, we  cannot make any change in tense.

The police: " Put the gun down!" 
The police ordered the man to put the gun down. 

The teacher: " Don't speaking during the test!"
The teacher told students not to speak during the test. 

REQUESTSIn requests, we generally use "ask" or "beg" instead of "say".

Jack said to Jane,"Help me please!"
Jack asked Jane to help him

The boy to Mrs Brown: "Please, please don't call the police!"
The boy begged Mrs Brown not to call the police

SUGGESTIONSIn suggestions, we generally use "suggest -Ving" or instead of "say". 

Tom :"Let's go outside."
Tom suggested going out. 

Tom: "We can go out."
Tom suggested going out.

Tom: Shall we go out?"
Tom suggested going out.

Tom: "How about going out?"
Tom suggested going out.  

In questions, we generally use "ask", "inquire", "wonder" or "want to know" instead of "say".

WH QUESTIONS: When questions start with WH words reported speech sentence is introduced with the same word but the question should turn into a normal sentence order. 

Jill: "What do you want to know?"
Jill asked me what I wanted to know.  

Bill: "How did you solve the problem?"
Bill wanted to know how I had solved the problem. 

The boss: "Why do you want this job?"
The boss asked why I wanted this job. 

YES/NO QUESTIONS: Reported yes/no questions start with "IF" or "WHETHER". The question should turn into a normal sentence order. 

Tom: "Have you seen him before?"
Tom asked IF / WHETHER I had seen him before. 

Bob: "Can you speak more slowly? 
Bob asked me IF / WHETHER I could speak more slowly.  

Bryan: "Is your hotel near here?"
Bryan wanted to know IF / WHETHER my hotel was near there


Thursday, January 6, 2011



Another is formed from a combination of the words "an" and "other", and has a meaning similar to "one other".

* When used as an adjective, another can precede only a singular countable noun.
* When used as a pronoun, another takes a singular verb.

e.g. Please bring me another knife.
Another of her uncles lives in Montreal.

In the first example, another modifies the singular noun knife.
In the second example, the pronoun another is the subject of the singular verb lives.

* Another usually cannot be immediately preceded by a determiner.
- The another student is nine years old. (WRONG)


Other can be used with singular countable, plural countable or uncountable nouns.

e.g. The other door is open.
The other streets are paved.
Do you have any other luggage?

In these examples, other modifies the singular countable noun door, the plural countable noun streets, and the uncountable noun luggage.

*When used before a singular countable noun, other usually must be preceded by a determiner.
e.g. Please pass me the other cup.
I do not know any other way to do it.
There must be some other explanation.

In these examples, other is used with the singular countable nouns cup, way and explanation, and is preceded by the determiners the, any and some.

*When other modifies a singular countable noun, the noun is sometimes omitted, particularly in the expression one ... the other.

e.g. I have two pens. One is green and the other is blue.
One of my parents is a teacher; the other is a doctor.


Others is a pronoun. Others can be used to take the place of the word other, followed by a plural countable noun.

e.g. Those trees are hemlocks; the others are pines.
Ten people belong to the group, and five others are planning to join.

In the first example, others takes the place of the words other trees. In the second example, others takes the place of the words other people.

*Others is often used in the expression some ... others.

e.g. Some books are easy to read, but others are quite difficult.
Some people like classical music, while others prefer jazz.