Friday, March 3, 2017
Tuesday, November 1, 2016
Wednesday, December 3, 2014
Friday, November 28, 2014
If I were a rich man....
Tuesday, March 4, 2014
- We use used to to talk about past habits (repeated events in the past) that we no longer have.
I used to work part time when I was a student.
My parents used to take me to the park every weekend when I was a child.
He didn't use to smoke in the past, but now he smokes a lot.
- "Used to" is also used with past states, not with past actions.
- We used to live in New York when I was a kid.
- There didn’t use to be a petrol station there. When was it built?
He would come and help me with my homework.
Thursday, November 22, 2012
Direct Speech: Exact words of the speaker. We use quotation marks (' ').
Reported (Indirect Speech): Exact meaning of what someone said but not the exact words. We do not use quotation marks.
While reporting someone's sentences we start the sentences generally with some verbs like "say, tell".
eg: Tom said that it was nice to be at home.
SAY - TELL
Say is used with or without personal object.
Eg: He said (that) he was Ted.
He said to me (that) he was Ted.
Tell is always used with a personal object.
Eg: He told me (that) he was Ted.
We report someone's sentences after some time. Because of this, in reported speech we change personal pronouns, possessive adjectives/pronouns, verb tense, and time expressions according to the meaning of the sentence.
Eg: Sam said "I am flying to Italy with my family tomorrow."
Sam said that he was flying to Italy with his family the following day.
When the reported sentence start with past tense verb like "said, told" etc., the verb tenses change as follows:
Time expressions change as follows:
Thursday, January 6, 2011
Another is formed from a combination of the words "an" and "other", and has a meaning similar to "one other".
* When used as an adjective, another can precede only a singular countable noun.
* When used as a pronoun, another takes a singular verb.
e.g. Please bring me another knife.
Another of her uncles lives in Montreal.
In the first example, another modifies the singular noun knife.
In the second example, the pronoun another is the subject of the singular verb lives.
* Another usually cannot be immediately preceded by a determiner.
- The another student is nine years old. (WRONG)
Other can be used with singular countable, plural countable or uncountable nouns.
e.g. The other door is open.
The other streets are paved.
Do you have any other luggage?
In these examples, other modifies the singular countable noun door, the plural countable noun streets, and the uncountable noun luggage.
*When used before a singular countable noun, other usually must be preceded by a determiner.
e.g. Please pass me the other cup.
I do not know any other way to do it.
There must be some other explanation.
In these examples, other is used with the singular countable nouns cup, way and explanation, and is preceded by the determiners the, any and some.
*When other modifies a singular countable noun, the noun is sometimes omitted, particularly in the expression one ... the other.
e.g. I have two pens. One is green and the other is blue.
One of my parents is a teacher; the other is a doctor.
Others is a pronoun. Others can be used to take the place of the word other, followed by a plural countable noun.
e.g. Those trees are hemlocks; the others are pines.
Ten people belong to the group, and five others are planning to join.
In the first example, others takes the place of the words other trees. In the second example, others takes the place of the words other people.
*Others is often used in the expression some ... others.
e.g. Some books are easy to read, but others are quite difficult.
Some people like classical music, while others prefer jazz.
Tuesday, November 2, 2010
Sunday, October 24, 2010
WH Questions with Present Simple
"Who works at a university?" (Not who does work at a university? This is wrong!!)
Emelworks at a university.
"Who is a teacher at a university?"
Sheis a teacher at a university.
"What is expensive?"
The book is expensive.
"Which book tells an intersting story?"
The expensive book tells an interesting story.
Object questions ask about the object of a sentence. The word order of the question must be changed. Use Who or Whom for people and What for objects.
* John helps Alice.
Who helps Alice? John helps Alice. (subject question)
Who(m) does John help? John helps Alice. (object question)
* John is with Alice.
Who is with Alice? John is with Alice. (subject question)
Who is John with? John is with Alice. (object question)
* The book gives a good example.
What does the book give? The book gives a good example.
Friday, April 23, 2010
Who: used for humans in subject position:
Hans, who is an architect, lives in Berlin.
Marike, whom Hans knows well, is an interior decorator.
Marike has a dog which follows her everywhere.
That: used for humans, animals and things, in subject or object position (but see below): Marike is decorating a house that Hans designed.
The package that arrived this morning is on the desk.
I should have gone to the funeral. (You didn't go and now you regret)
Lex might have taken Karen to the airport. (He may be on the way now)
Lex could have taken Karen to the airport. (Most likely he didn't)
His children must have been sick. (That's why they were not in the class yesterday.)
Monday, April 19, 2010
The past perfect is used to refer to an event or situation which took place before another past event.
Tom had interviewed five times before he got his first job.
She had already eaten by the time they arrived.
Past Perfect Continuous:
The past perfect continuous is used to express how long something had been going on before something important happened in the past.
Jane had been studying for four hours when he came home.
Jack had been driving four over six hours when he finally pulled over to have lunch.
Note: You cannot use non-action verbs in past perfect progressive tense.
Sunday, March 14, 2010
Friday, March 12, 2010
Eg: "I'm going to buy his book. It's suposed to be very good."
" I'm supposed to give a conference in Berlin tomorrow."
" Are you supposed to finish the project today?" Yes I am.
" He is not supposed to be here now"
"You are not supposed to speak Turkish in an English class.
2- Use was /were supposed to when you are expected to do something in the past but could not do it :
Eg: "The exam was supposed to start at 10.00, but the teacher was late."
"They were supposed to call before they go, but they didn't.
Watch a video on Youtube about be supposed to
Eg: "I prefer horror films in general."
“He prefers reading books.”
" They prefer to spend their holiday abroad."
2- The expressions 'would prefer' and 'would rather', to be a little more specific or for on the spot decisions.
3- While making comparison prefer, would prefer – go with 'to'
5- To ask about general likes and dislikes, use "present simple tense".
Eg: Do you prefer horror films?
Wednesday, February 24, 2010
1- Infinitives are the "to" form of the verb.
The infinitive form of "learn" is "to learn." You can also use an infinitive as the subject, the complement, or the object of a sentence.
· To learn is important.
· The most important thing is to learn.
· He wants to learn.
2- Infinitives can be made negative by adding "not."
· I decided not to go.
· The most important thing is not to give up.
3- Some verbs are followed by infinitives
4- Some verbs are followed by a noun +infinitive.
In some situations, the noun is required. In other situations, the noun is optional.
· The police ordered the man to stop. (noun is required)
· She asked to leave. (noun is optional)
· She asked him to leave. (noun is optional)
Reading helps you learn English.
(SUB) (VERB) (OBJECT)
Her favorite hobby is reading.
(SUBJECT) (Verb) (COMPLEMENT)
I enjoy reading.
(S) (V) (O)
The best thing for your health is not smoking.
He prefers not speaking.
3-In the subject position mostly gerunds are used.
Learning is important.
Dancing is enjoyable.
4- Some verbs are followed by gerunds as objects.
5- There are many "go + gerund" expressions used for adventure sports and individual recreational activities
6- Gerunds are used after prepositions.
Sandy is scared of flying.
They admitted to committing the crime.
7- Gerunds can often be modified with possessive forms such as his, her, its, your, their, our, John's
I enjoyed their singing.
She understood his saying no to the offer.
Sam resented Debbie's coming late to the dinner.
We discussed Mary’s behaving so rude.
GERUND OR INFINITIVE ?
Some verbs can be followed by a gerund or an infinitive, but with a difference in meaning.