Tuesday, December 22, 2009
We use at with times:
at 5 o’clock - at 11.45 - at midnight - at lunchtime
at night - at Christmas - at the moment / at present - at the same time - at weekends - at the age of...
We use on with dates and days:
on 12 March - on Friday(s) - on Friday morning(s)
Tom usually gets up at 7 o’clock.
on Sunday afternoon(s) - on Saturday night(s)
on Christmas Day (but at Christmas)
We use in for longer periods of time:
in April - in 1986 - in winter - in the 19th century - in the 1970s - in the morning(s) / in the afternoon(s) / in the evening(s)
In + period of time = a time in the future:
Jack will be back in a week.
The train will leave in a few minutes.
In + how long it takes to do something:
I learned to drive in four weeks.
We use during + noun to say when something happens:
during the film - during our holiday - during the night
I fell asleep during the film.
We met a lot of interesting people during our holiday.
We use for + a period of time:
for six years - for two hours - for a week
I’ve lived in this house for six years.
They have been watching TV for two hours.
We use since + a period of time:
since April - since 1992 - since 8 o’ clock
It has been raining since one o’ clock.
They’ve known each other since they were at school.
We use until/till to say how long a situation continues:
Let’s wait until it stops raining.
I stayed in bed until half past nine.
FROM - TO
We use from - to + beginning and end of a period:
Last evening we watched TV from 5 to 8 o’ clock.
Saturday, November 28, 2009
Last night at 6 PM, I was eating dinner.
At midnight, we were still driving through the desert.
Yesterday at this time, I was sitting at my desk at work.
while + long action (past continuous tense): I was sleeping
When the telephone rang, I was sleeping.
While I was sleeping, the telephone rang.
There are 4 basic combinations:
While Ellen was reading, Tim was watching television.
Were you listening while he was talking?
I wasn't paying attention while I was writing the letter, so I made several mistakes.
What were you doing while you were waiting?
Thomas wasn't working, and I wasn't working either.
Sunday, November 22, 2009
I saw a movie yesterday.
I traveled to Japan last year.
She washed her car.
The verbs in past tense can be regular or irregular. To make regular verbs, add -ed at the end of the verbs in past tense. Irregular verbs completely change shape in past tense.
The rules of making regular past tense verbs:
Be careful!!! In negative statements you don't use V2.
Be carefull!! You don't use V2 in questions.
Be carefull!! You don't use V2 in wh- questions.
A / AN
*Use 'a' with nouns starting with a consonant (letters that are not vowels),
'an' with nouns starting with a vowel (a,e,i,o,u)
NOTE: An before an h mute - an hour, an honour.
A before u and eu when they sound like 'you': a european, a university, a unit
The indefinite article is used:
* to refer to something for the first time:
Eg: An elephant and a mouse fell in love.
Would you like a drink?
I've finally got a good job.
*to refer to a particular member of a group or class
-with names of jobs:
John is a doctor. Mary is training to be an engineer. He wants to be a dancer.
-with nationalities and religions:
John is an Englishman.
Kate is a Catholic.
'The' is used:
1. to refer to something which has already been mentioned.
Example: An elephant and a mouse fell in love.The mouse loved the elephant's long trunk,and the elephant loved the mouse's tiny nose.
2. when both the speaker and listener know what is being talked about, even if it has not been mentioned before.
Example: 'Where's the bathroom?''It's on the first floor.'
3. in sentences or clauses where we define or identify a particular person or object:
Examples: The man who wrote this book is famous.
'Which car did you scratch?' 'The red one.
My house is the one with a blue door.'
4. to refer to objects we regard as unique:
Examples: the sun, the moon, the world
5. before superlatives and ordinal numbers:
Examples: the highest building, the first page, the last chapter.
6. with adjectives, to refer to a whole group of people:
Examples: the Japanese, the old
7. with names of geographical areas and oceans:
Examples: the Caribbean, the Sahara, the Atlantic
8. with decades, or groups of years:
Example: she grew up in the 70s
9- with country names with "united, republic, kingdom"
Example: "The United States of America, The Republic of China, The United Kingdom"
EXCEPTIONS TO USING THE DEFINITE ARTICLE
There is NO article:
1-with names of countries (if singular)
Germany is an important economic power.
He's just returned from Zimbabwe.(But: I'm visiting the United States next week.)
2-with the names of languages
French is spoken in Tahiti.
English uses many words of Latin origin.
Indonesian is a relatively new language.
3-with the names of meals.
Lunch is at midday.
Dinner is in the evening.
Breakfast is the first meal of the day.
4-with people's names (if singular):
John's coming to the party.
George King is my uncle.(But: we're having lunch with the Morgans tomorrow.)
5-with titles and names:
Prince Charles is Queen Elizabeth's son.
President Kennedy was assassinated in Dallas.
Dr. Watson was Sherlock Holmes' friend.(But: the Queen of England, the Pope.)
6-After the 's possessive case:
His brother's car.
Engineering is a useful career.
He'll probably go into medicine.
8-with names of shops:
I'll get the card at Smith's.
Can you go to Boots for me?
1948 was a wonderful year.
Do you remember 1995?
10-With uncountable nouns:
Rice is the main food in Asia.
Milk is often added to tea in England.
War is destructive.
11-with the names of individual mountains, lakes and islands:
Mount Erciyes is the highest mountain in Turkey.
She lives near Lake Windermere.
Have you visited Long Island?
12-with most names of towns, streets, stations and airports:
Victoria Station is in the centre of London.
Can you direct me to Bond Street?
She lives in Florence.
They're flying from Heathrow.
13-in some fixed expressions, for example:
by car by train by air on foot on holiday on air (in broadcasting)
at school at work at University in church in prison in bed
Sunday, November 8, 2009
2. We can also use the Present Continuous Tense to talk about activities happening around now, and not necessarily this very moment.
Saturday, November 7, 2009
1-the action is general
2-the action happens all the time, or habitually, in the past, present and future
3-the action is not only happening now
4-the statement is always true
With NON-ACTION (or stative) verbs such as like, dislike, love, think, seem, look, know, feel, understand, want, need, hate, remember, forget, prefer, believe, mean, taste, hear, see, have (when the meaning is "possess"), own, belong, etc. we use Present Simple Tense. These verbs ARE NOT normally used in the Continuous Tense (but there are exceptions).
ADVERBS OF FREQUENCY
With Present Simple Tense we often use time expressions such as always, often, sometimes, usually, seldom, on Saturdays, rarely, never, every day, etc.
Sunday, October 25, 2009
Yes /No Questions
1. Use there IS for singular nouns (one item).
"There is a spider on the wall."
2. Use there IS for non-countable items(group nouns).
"There is milk on the floor."
3. Use there ARE for many items (plural nouns).
"There are pencils on my desk."
Where are you from?
When is your birthday
Why is he happy?
What is your name?
Which is my book?
How is the film?
Click on the following links for online exercises.
THIS is a car. .
THAT is a bird.
THESE are cats. These are hats.
THOSE are bees.
1- "this" is used for an object (only 1) which is near the speaker.
2- "that" is used for one object which is far from the speaker.
3- "these" is used for objects (more than 1) which are near the speaker
4- "those" is used for objects (more than 1) which are far from the speaker.
Click on the following links to do online exercises.